TRANSNATIONAL CRIMES AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING
By Vanshika Kasturi
Transnational crimes are violations of law that involve more than one country in their planning, execution, or impact. These offenses are distinguished from other crimes in their multinational nature, which poses unique problems in understanding their causes, developing prevention strategies, and in mounting effective adjudication procedures. Transnational crimes can be grouped into three broad categories involving provision of illicit goods (drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, weapons trafficking, and counterfeiting), illicit services (commercial sex and human trafficking), and infiltration of business and government (fraud, racketeering, money laundering, and corruption) affecting multiple countries. Transnational crimes are distinct from international crime, which involves crimes against humanity that may or may not involve multiple countries.
Human trafficking, also called trafficking in persons, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially. Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. It is estimated that approximately 1,000,000 people are trafficked each year globally and that between 20,000 and 50,000 are trafficked into the United States, which is one of the largest destinations for victims of the sex-trafficking trade. Although human trafficking is recognized as a growing international phenomenon, a uniform definition has yet to be internationally adopted. The United Nations (UN) divides human trafficking into three categories—sex trafficking, labour trafficking, and the removal of organs—and defines human trafficking as the induction by force, fraud, or coercion of a person to engage in the sex trade, or the harboring, transportation, or obtaining of a person for labour service or organ removal. Though the United States does not acknowledge the removal of organs in its definition, it does recognize sex and labour trafficking and describes human trafficking as the purposeful transportation of an individual for exploitation.
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